Inhibitory effect of leaf extract of Kandikandilaan, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Family Verbenaceae) on the development of chick embryo

  • Eliese Lovessa Yu University of San Carlos
  • Ann Marie Tesado University of San Carlos
  • April Gendell Villalon University of San Carlos
  • Rosemarie Yurong University of San Carlos
Keywords: chorioallantoic membrane, extra embryonic vessels, alkaloids, teratology, embryonic toxicity


Philippine traditional folk medicine employs the less commonly used weed, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Family Verbenaceae). A tissue response experiment on the crude leaf extract using CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) method was carried out to determine if this species is harmful. Eighty fertilized native chicken eggs were pre-incubated for two days and administered with crude extract at 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations. Development of extra embryonic vessels and the morphometric state of the chick embryos at 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th day of incubation were noted. Both treatments (i.e., varying concentrations) and incubation periods independently affected the formation of extra embryonic vessels, however, the two factors affected the eye and heart size interactively. No significant difference in the heart measurements was noted between 4th and 6th day of observation between crude leaf extract concentrations and in the interaction of time and extract concentrations. The 100% crude extract had a detrimental effect towards the development of the chicken embryo, especially to the formation of extra embryonic vessels. Results of this study may be useful to medical problems such as angiogenesis (i.e., new vessel formation from preexisting vessels) and its relation to tumor growth.